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Evidence and Case Studies

Evidence of magnesium delivery across the skin barrier
IN VITRO TRANSDERMAL DELIVERY OF MAGNESIUM (25th of October 2011)
Charles Heard, Cardiff University
Key Results: Magnesium can permeate the skin from topically applied liquid solutions of MgCl2.
A Pilot Study to determine the impact of Transdermal Magnesium treatment on serum levels and whole body CaMg Ratios. (9th of April 2010)
Watkins K et al
Key Results: This study was designed to test whether transdermal application of a 31% magnesium chloride formulation could alter serum magnesium levels and whole body calcium/magnesium ratios. These results show that non self selected patients who exhibit variable levels of intracellular magnesium can improve this significantly and could therefore impact on many areas of general health and well being, including cardiovascular and skeletal fitness. 
Effect of transdermal magnesium cream on serum and urinary magnesium levels in humans: A pilot study. (12th of April 2017)
Lindsy Kass et al. 
Key Results: This investigation set out to determine whether magnesium in a cream could be absorbed transdermally in humans to improve magnesium status. subjects. In this pilot study, transdermal delivery of 56 mg Mg/day (a low dose compared with commercial transdermal Mg2+ products available) showed a larger percentage rise in both serum and urinary markers from pre to post intervention compared with subjects using the placebo cream, but statistical significance was achieved only for serum Mg2+ in a subgroup of non-athletes.
Permeation of topically applied Magnesium ions through human skin is facilitated by hair follicles. (1st of June 2016)
Navin Chandrakanth Chandrasekaran et al.
Key Results: Upon topical application of magnesium solution, we found that magnesium penetrates through human stratum corneum and it depends on concentration and time of exposure. We also found that hair follicles make a significant contribution to magnesium penetration.
Report on Absorption of magnesium sulfate (Epsom salts) across the skin. (Not Dated)
Dr RH Waring
Key Results: Magnesium ions had crossed the skin barrier and had been excreted via the kidney, presumably because the blood levels were already optimal. Bathing in Epsom salts is a safe and easy way to increase sulfate and magnesium levels in the body. 
Evidence of reduction in delay onset muscle soreness from Magnesium supplementation
Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Muscle Soreness and Performance. (1st of August 2022)
Alyssum M Reno et al.
Key Results: Results show significantly reduced muscle soreness, session rating of perceived exertion, acute rating of perceived exertion, and improved perceived recovery after Mg (vs. Pla) supplementation and some evidence for positive performance impact.
One week of magnesium supplementation lowers IL-6, muscle soreness and increases post-exercise blood glucose in response to downhill running. (17th of October 2017)
Charles James Steward et al.
Key Results: Magnesium supplementation reduced the IL-6 response, enhanced recovery of blood glucose, and muscle soreness after strenuous exercise, but did not improve performance or functional measures of recovery.
The effect of acute vs chronic magnesium supplementation on exercise and recovery on resistance exercise, blood pressure and total peripheral resistance on normotensive adults. (1st of April of 2022)
Lindsy S Kass
Key Results: The study was a randomised, double-blind, cross-over design, placebo controlled 2 day repeat measure protocol (n = 13). Intense exercise (40 km time trial) was followed by bench press at 80% 1RM to exhaustion, with blood pressure and total peripheral resistance (TPR) recorded. 300 mg/d elemental magnesium was supplemented for either a 1 (A) or 4 (Chr) week loading strategy.
Evidence of enhanced physical performance from magnesium supplementation
Effect of magnesium supplementation on strength training in humans. (2nd of September 2013)
L R Brilla et al.
Key Results: Significant differences in T gains after strength training were demonstrated in Mg oxide vs Placebo. Mg's role may be at the ribosomal level in protein synthesis.
Magnesium status and the physical performance of volleyball players: effects of magnesium supplementation. (9th of September 2013)
Luciana Setaro
Key Results: Magnesium supplementation improved alactic anaerobic metabolism, even though the players were not magnesium-deficient.
Magnesium intake is associated with strength performance in elite basketball, handball and volleyball players. (24th of December 2011)
Diana Aguiar Santos et al. 
Key Results: The observed associations between magnesium intake and muscle strength performance may result from the important role of magnesium in energetic metabolism, transmembrane transport and muscle contraction and relaxation.Diana Aguiar Santos et al.
The observed associations between magnesium intake and muscle strength performance may result from the important role of magnesium in energetic metabolism, transmembrane transport and muscle contraction and relaxation.
Can Magnesium Enhance Exercise Performance? (28th of August 2017)
Yijia Zhang et al.
Key Results: Some cross-sectional surveys demonstrated a positive association between Mg status and muscle performance, including grip strength, lower-leg power, knee extension torque, ankle extension strength, maximal isometric trunk flexion, rotation, and jumping performance. Additionally, findings from intervention studies showed that Mg supplementation might lead to improvements in functional indices such as quadriceps torque. Moreover, Mg supplementation could improve gait speed and chair stand time in elderly women.
Effects of magnesium on exercise performance and plasma glucose and lactate concentrations in rats using a novel blood-sampling technique. (December 2019)
Ying-Ju Chen et al.
Key Results: Increased blood glucose contributes to enhanced exercise performance by rats injected intraperitoneally with magnesium.
Evidence that athletes should supplement with Magnesium as part of their training plan
Influence of physical training on erythrocyte concentrations of iron, phosphorus and magnesium. (29th of January of 2020)
Marcos Maynar Mariño,Francisco Javier Grijota 
Key Results: Physical exercise produces a decrease in erythrocyte concentrations of Fe, Mg and P. This situation could cause alterations in the performance of athletes given the importance of these elements. For this reason, we recommend an erythrocyte control at the beginning, and during the training period, to avoid harmful deficits.
An 8-year Analysis of Magnesium Status in Elite International Track & Field Athlete. (10th of May 2019)
N. Pollock
Key Results: 22% of athletes were identified as clinically deficient [in Magnesium] (<1.19 mmol/L). The average red cell magnesium concentration was 1.34 nmol/L. Magnesium was significantly lower in female athletes and those with Black or Mixed-Race ethnicity and was higher in Throws athletes and Paralympians with Cerebral Palsy. Athletes with a history of achilles or patella tendon pain had significantly lower magnesium levels than average.
Dietary Acid-Base Balance in High-Performance Athletes. (24th of July 2020)
Marius Baranauskas et al.
Key Results: Athletes are recommended to consume higher amounts of potassium and magnesium.
Evidence for reduction of pain symptoms and improved recovery from the use of magnesium, capsicum and menthol
Effects of transdermal magnesium chloride on quality of life for patients with fibromyalgia: a feasibility study. (September 2015)
Deborah J. Engen et al.
Key Results: This pilot study suggests that transdermal magnesium chloride applied on upper and lower limbs may be beneficial to patients with fibromyalgia.
Effect of curcumin supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage: a narrative review. (December 2022)
K Nanavati et al.
Key Results: Curcumin supplementation in the dose range of 90-5000 mg/day can decrease the subjective perception of muscle pain intensity, increase antioxidant capacity, and reduce CK activity, which reduces muscle damage when consumed close to exercise. Consumption of curcumin also improves muscle performance and has an anti-inflammatory effect, downregulating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8.
Effectiveness and safety of topical capsaicin cream in the treatment of chronic soft tissue pain. (December 2010)
S Chrubasik et al.
Key Results: The results indicate that capsaicin cream is useful in patients with chronic soft tissue pain and is also efficacious in patients with chronic back pain for which effectiveness was already demonstrated in earlier clinical trials.
Capsaicin: Current Understanding of Its Mechanisms and Therapy of Pain and Other Pre-Clinical and Clinical Uses. (28th of July of 2016)
Victor Fattor
TRPV1 activation improves exercise endurance and energy metabolism through PGC-1α upregulation in mice. (March 2012)
Zhidan Luo
Key Results: We conclude that TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin improves energy metabolism and exercise endurance by upregulating PGC-1α in skeletal muscles. The present results indicate a novel therapeutic strategy for managing metabolic diseases and improving exercise endurance.
A COMPARISON OF TOPICAL MENTHOL TO ICE ON PAIN, EVOKED TETANIC AND VOLUNTARY FORCE DURING DELAYED ONSET MUSCLE SORENESS (June 2012)
Pramod Johar
Key Results: The most important results of this study suggest that a menthol based topical analgesic was more effective than ice for relieving soreness associated with DOMS while at rest or during muscle contractions.